BlackBerry has released an updated version of their Desktop Software which also adds syncing support for Outlook 2010. This applies only to the 32-bit version of Outlook 2010 (and previous). Support for the 64-bit version is expected to be added later.
Download: BlackBerry Desktop Software 6.0
Download: Blackberry Desktop Software User Guide
View: Comparing Desktop Manager 5.0.1 and Desktop Software 6.0
View: BlackBerry 6: Inside the New BlackBerry Desktop Software v6.0
If you are not using a BlackBerry, take a look here for an overview of synching applications for some popular mobile phone brands.